Audio'; echo '
'; echo '

'.$arr["transcript"].'

'; $fichieraudio = $arr["fichier"]; //urldecode echo ''; echo ' '; echo ' '; echo ' '; echo ' '; break; case "video": echo '

Video

'; echo '
'; if ($info == "canoe56K_Dial_Up_Stream_Noaudio001" or $info == "mission56K_Dial_Up_Stream_Noaudio001") { echo ''; echo ' '; echo ' '; echo ' '; } else if ($info == "canoe512K_Stream_Noaudio001" or $info == "mission512K_Stream_Noaudio001") { echo ''; echo ' '; echo ' '; echo ' '; } if ($info == "canoe56K_Dial_Up_Stream_Noaudio001" or $info == "canoe512K_Stream_Noaudio001") { echo '

Old film footage of Innu people and their canoes at Sheshatshiu and Davis Inlet taken by or for Monsignor Edward Joseph O\'Brien between 1921 and 1946. Footage courtesy Roman Catholic Diocese of Grand Falls, Newfoundland, and The Rooms, Provincial Archives Division.

'; } else if ($info == "mission56K_Dial_Up_Stream_Noaudio001" or $info == "mission512K_Stream_Noaudio001") { echo '

Old film footage of Innu people attending mission at Sheshatshiu and Davis Inlet taken by or for Monsignor Edward Joseph O\'Brien between 1921 and 1946. Footage courtesy Roman Catholic Diocese of Grand Falls, Newfoundland, and The Rooms, Provincial Archives Division.

'; } break; case "process": $no_du_catalogue = "III-B-223"; $ma_page = "1202"; echo '

Pien makes a canoe: Innu canoe-making project

'; echo '

In the summer and early fall of 2002, Innu Elder, Pien Penashue, from Sheshatshiu, Labrador, built a canoe for the Innu Exhibit at the Provincial Museum of Newfoundland and Labrador at The Rooms in St. John\'s. His son, Melvin, and his nephew, Alistair Pone, were apprentices. Anthropologist, Peter Armitage, documented the process, and CBC Television visited on several occasions to film the canoe-making and interview Pien, Melvin, Alistair, and others with the view to making a documentary film.

'; echo '

The Innu name for the type of canoe made by Pien and his apprentices is katshishtashkuatet, from tshishtashkuan - nail.

'; echo '

The tools: axe (ushtashku), wooden wedge (utakan), wooden maul (utamaikan), crooked knife (mukutakan), pestle (mitunishan), hand plane, electric planer, chainsaw, metal rasp, handsaw, hammer.

'; echo '

The materials: white spruce (minaiku), nails, canvas, metal strapping, green & gray paint.

'; echo '

The Process

'; echo ' See the interactive version'; echo '          '; echo ' See the printable version'; break; case "process_goodtree_01": $id = "1"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_goodtree_01&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Good Tree

'; echo '
'; echo ' Step 1 of 15 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'Uhuniau'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

Pien, Melvin, and Alistair built the canoe mostly at Uhuniau ("Owl Point," aka North West Point), about 5 km from Sheshatshiu and North West River, Labrador. Pien and his wife, Nishet, and several relatives, have cabins at the point. Akamiuapishku (Mealy Mountains) can be seen in the background across Atatshi-uinipeku (Lake Melville).

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_goodtree_01": $id = "1"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
Uhuniau
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_goodtree_02": $id = "1"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_goodtree_02&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Good Tree

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 2 of 15 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'Pien Penashue'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

Pien Penashue, the master canoe-maker. Born in 1926 in the Akamiuapishku area, Pien learned how to make the katshishtashkuatet (nail) canoe from his step-father, Pien Toma.

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_goodtree_02": $id = "1"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
Pien Penashue
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_goodtree_03": $id = "1"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_goodtree_03&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Good Tree

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 3 of 15 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'Lizette and Pien Penashue'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

Nishet (Pokue) Penashue and Pien Penashue. Nishet told stories about canoeing and canoe-making in the days before settlement.

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_goodtree_03": $id = "1"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
Lizette and Pien Penashue
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_goodtree_04": $id = "1"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_goodtree_04&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Good Tree

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 4 of 15 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'Melvin and Pien'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

Melvin about to cut down a tree for canoe lumber. Canoe-making starts with the selection of the appropriate trees. They must be minaiku (white spruce), tall and straight, with at least a couple of metres of trunk free of branches. Trees that have branches along the trunk or are twisted will cause a lot of grief because they cannot be split very easily, and knots (from the branches) do not make strong planking.

'; echo '

Pien pulled the bark off the tree in strips on one side so that he could examine the grain underneath and look for knots and other imperfections.

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_goodtree_04": $id = "1"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
Melvin and Pien
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_goodtree_05": $id = "1"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_goodtree_05&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Good Tree

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 5 of 15 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'Melvin canoe'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

Melvin making a wooden utakan (wooden wedge). Several utakan are made to split the wood. They are often badly damaged by being hit with an axe or maul and must be replaced.

'; echo '

Tools such as the utakan were probably very important to the Innu in the days before metal could be obtained in trade with Europeans. But wooden tools do not turn up at archaeological sites because the wood rots over time.

'; echo '

A big part of being a good craftsman involves knowing which trees will make good lumber for canoes, toboggans, and snowshoes.

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_goodtree_05": $id = "1"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
Melvin canoe
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_goodtree_06": $id = "1"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_goodtree_06&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Good Tree

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 6 of 15 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'Pien canoe'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

Pien driving the utakan into the minaiku to split it open. If the wood has a straight grain, it will "pop" open easily. Some of the thinner planks can even be split open with a knife if the grain is good.

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_goodtree_06": $id = "1"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
Pien canoe
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_goodtree_07": $id = "1"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_goodtree_07&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Good Tree

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 7 of 15 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'Pien canoe'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

Pien drives the utakan into the end of a log.

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_goodtree_07": $id = "1"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
Pien canoe
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_goodtree_08": $id = "1"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_goodtree_08&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Good Tree

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 8 of 15 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'Pien canoe'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The utakan is used to split more narrow planks following the grain of the wood. These planks will be used for anashkan (planks) and uatshinau (ribs).

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_goodtree_08": $id = "1"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
Pien canoe
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_goodtree_09": $id = "1"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_goodtree_09&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Good Tree

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 9 of 15 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'Pien canoe'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

Pien uses a wooden maul (utamaikan) to hit the utakan and axe.

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_goodtree_09": $id = "1"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
Pien canoe
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_goodtree_10": $id = "1"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_goodtree_10&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Good Tree

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 10 of 15 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'Melvin canoe'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

Melvin using an utakan to split the wood along the grain.

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_goodtree_10": $id = "1"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
Melvin canoe
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_goodtree_11": $id = "1"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_goodtree_11&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Good Tree

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 11 of 15 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'Alister and Melvin'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

Alistair and Melvin splitting wood using a couple of utakan.

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_goodtree_11": $id = "1"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
Alister and Melvin
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_goodtree_12": $id = "1"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_goodtree_12&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Good Tree

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 12 of 15 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'Pien'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

Raw, quartered lengths of minaiku that must be split further for raw planking and ribs.

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_goodtree_12": $id = "1"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
Pien
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_goodtree_13": $id = "1"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_goodtree_13&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Good Tree

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 13 of 15 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'Ribs'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

"Thin" planking ready for more thinning using a crooked knife, hand plane or electric planer.

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_goodtree_13": $id = "1"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
Ribs
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_goodtree_14": $id = "1"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_goodtree_14&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Good Tree

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 14 of 15 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'Gunwhales'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

Melvin cuts a length of minaiku down the middle with a chainsaw. Each half of the tree will be used to make minikukanashku (gunwales).

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_goodtree_14": $id = "1"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
Gunwhales
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_goodtree_15": $id = "1"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_goodtree_15&page=1202"; $image="a10b-gunwhales3.jpg"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Good Tree

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 15 of 15 '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'Gunwhales'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

Lumber for minikukanashku (gunwales).

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_goodtree_15": $id = "1"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
Gunwhales
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_planks_01": $id = "2"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_planks_01&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Planks

'; echo '
'; echo ' Step 1 of 5 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'Allistair planing'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

Alistair shaping thin planks using a hand plane. Pien watches on.

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_planks_01": $id = "2"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
Allistair planing
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_planks_02": $id = "2"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_planks_02&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Planks

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 2 of 5 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'Mukutan'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

Alistair\'s mukutakan (crooked knife) that his grandfather, the late Matiu Penashue, gave him. The handle is covered with a weasel pelt.

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_planks_02": $id = "2"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
Mukutan
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_planks_03": $id = "2"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_planks_03&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Planks

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 3 of 5 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'Electric planer'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The electric planer takes the place of the crooked knife, and saves considerable time in the canoe-making process.

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_planks_03": $id = "2"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
Electric planer
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_planks_04": $id = "2"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_planks_04&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Planks

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 4 of 5 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'Pien planing'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

Pien planing some more planking for the canoe.

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_planks_04": $id = "2"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
Pien planing
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_planks_05": $id = "2"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_planks_05&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Planks

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 5 of 5 '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'Drying planks'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

Lumber drying to be used for planking and ribs.

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_planks_05": $id = "2"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
Drying planks
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_gunwales_01": $id = "3"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_gunwales_01&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Gunwales

'; echo '
'; echo ' Step 1 of 4 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'Gunwhales'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

Melvin cutting thin strips of wood for the minikukanashku(gunwales).

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_gunwales_01": $id = "3"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
Gunwhales
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_gunwales_02": $id = "3"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_gunwales_02&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Gunwales

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 2 of 4 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'Gunwhales'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The minikukanashku being laid out on the ground. The bow and stern must be bent upwards in order to create "rocker" in the canoe hull. "Rocker" is the round shape of the bottom of a canoe than determines how manoeuvrable the canoe will be. The more round it is, the more manoeuvrable is the canoe. Canoes will little rocker are not that manoeuvrable, but they "track well," that is, they can be paddled easily in a straight line.

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_gunwales_02": $id = "3"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
Gunwhales
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_gunwales_03": $id = "3"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_gunwales_03&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Gunwales

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 3 of 4 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'Gunwhales'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

Close-up of the end of the gunwales.

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_gunwales_03": $id = "3"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
Gunwhales
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_gunwales_04": $id = "3"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_gunwales_04&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Gunwales

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 4 of 4 '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'Pien gunwhales'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

Melvin and Pien working on the gunwales. Temporary thwarts are used to hold the gunwales together until they can be attached to the ribs, and the permanent thwarts installed.

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_gunwales_04": $id = "3"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
Pien gunwhales
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_ribs_01": $id = "4"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_ribs_01&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Ribs

'; echo '
'; echo ' Step 1 of 4 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'Big gun'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The "mishta-passikan" ("big gun") being used by Pien to soak ribs in boiling water prior to bending. This ingenious device consists of a piece of heavy pipe, stuck in the sand at an angle. It is filled with water and a fire built underneath to heat the water.

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_ribs_01": $id = "4"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
Big gun
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_ribs_02": $id = "4"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_ribs_02&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Ribs

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 2 of 4 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'Pien bendribs'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

Pien bending canoe ribs (uatshinau). Despite his age (76 at the time), Pien had all the flexibility of a yoga master.

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_ribs_02": $id = "4"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
Pien bendribs
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_ribs_03": $id = "4"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_ribs_03&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Ribs

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 3 of 4 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'Pien bendribs'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

A stick is fixed in place across the ribs while they dry in order to hold their shape.

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_ribs_03": $id = "4"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
Pien bendribs
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_ribs_04": $id = "4"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_ribs_04&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Ribs

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 4 of 4 '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'Bentrib'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

What drying ribs look like close up.

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_ribs_04": $id = "4"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
Bentrib
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_assembly_01": $id = "5"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_assembly_01&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Assembly

'; echo '
'; echo ' Step 1 of 19 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'The Assembly'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The canoe is assembled on a "bench" consisting of a couple of lengths of 2x4 lumber nailed to some short posts in the ground. The bottom planks and ribs are nailed temporarily to this bench. Once the canoe is fully ribbed and planked, the nails will be removed, and the canoe set free.

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_assembly_01": $id = "5"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
The Assembly
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_assembly_02": $id = "5"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_assembly_02&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Assembly

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 2 of 19 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'The Assembly'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

End view down the length of the canoe as it starts to take shape. Note how the ribs are tacked on to the bench as explained in the caption to the previous photograph. Permanent thwarts have been bolted to the gunwales (inwales) at this stage in the process, but there are still temporary thwarts in place as well.

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_assembly_02": $id = "5"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
The Assembly
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_assembly_03": $id = "5"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_assembly_03&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Assembly

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 3 of 19 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'The Assembly'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

Side view showing how the ribs are laid out along the bench with a gunwale frame (vertical stakes in ground with cross-bracing) in place.

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_assembly_03": $id = "5"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
The Assembly
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_assembly_04": $id = "5"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_assembly_04&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Assembly

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 4 of 19 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_assembly_04": $id = "5"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_assembly_04&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Assembly

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 4 of 19 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'The Assembly'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
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Close up showing the mishkutui (stem batten) at the bow of the canoe.

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_assembly_04": $id = "5"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
The Assembly
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_assembly_05": $id = "5"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_assembly_05&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Assembly

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 5 of 19 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
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Pien starts to attach planks to the bottom of the canoe.

'; echo '
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The Assembly
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_assembly_06": $id = "5"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_assembly_06&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Assembly

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 6 of 19 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'The Assembly'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

Alistair holds a pestle (mitunishan) against the rib as Melvin hammers a nail through from the other side. The tip of the nail will bend against the metal pestle, thereby "riveting" the plank and the rib together.

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_assembly_06": $id = "5"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
The Assembly
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_assembly_07": $id = "5"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_assembly_07&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Assembly

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 7 of 19 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'The Assembly'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

Close up of a pestle (mitunishan). In the old days, the Innu made this tool out of stone.

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_assembly_07": $id = "5"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
The Assembly
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_assembly_08": $id = "5"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_assembly_08&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Assembly

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 8 of 19 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'The Assembly'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

Another view of the work site. The frame above the canoe was used to suspend a tarp for protection against the rain.

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_assembly_08": $id = "5"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
The Assembly
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_assembly_09": $id = "5"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_assembly_09&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Assembly

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 9 of 19 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'The Assembly'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

Planks tied in place temporarily until more planks could be added, and the ribs held firmly in place.

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_assembly_09": $id = "5"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
The Assembly
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_assembly_10": $id = "5"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_assembly_10&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Assembly

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 10 of 19 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
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'; echo 'The Assembly'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

More planks being added, one by one.

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_assembly_10": $id = "5"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
The Assembly
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_assembly_11": $id = "5"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_assembly_11&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Assembly

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 11 of 19 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'The Assembly'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

Another view of the canoe as it gets planked.

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_assembly_11": $id = "5"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
The Assembly
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_assembly_12": $id = "5"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_assembly_12&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Assembly

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 12 of 19 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'The Assembly'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

Long shot of the canoe under construction.

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'; break; case "zoom_assembly_12": $id = "5"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
The Assembly
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 Back 
'; break; case "process_assembly_13": $id = "5"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_assembly_13&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Assembly

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 13 of 19 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'The Assembly'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The planking starts to climb up the side of the canoe.

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_assembly_13": $id = "5"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
The Assembly
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_assembly_14": $id = "5"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_assembly_14&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Assembly

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 14 of 19 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'The Assembly'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

Shimiu Rich pays a visit to the work site to check on progress.

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'; break; case "zoom_assembly_14": $id = "5"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
The Assembly
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_assembly_15": $id = "5"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_assembly_15&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Assembly

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 15 of 19 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'The Assembly'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

Smaller pieces of planking are inserted at the bow and stern to fill in gaps.

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'; break; case "zoom_assembly_15": $id = "5"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
The Assembly
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_assembly_16": $id = "5"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_assembly_16&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Assembly

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 16 of 19 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'The Assembly'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

Pien uses his mukutakan (crooked knife) to cut and break off portions of ribs that stick out past the gunwales.

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_assembly_16": $id = "5"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
The Assembly
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_assembly_17": $id = "5"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_assembly_17&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Assembly

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 17 of 19 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'The Assembly'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

Alistair uses a rasp to smooth down the ends of the ribs above the gunwales. All of the temporary thwarts have now been removed.

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_assembly_17": $id = "5"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
The Assembly
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_assembly_18": $id = "5"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_assembly_18&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Assembly

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 18 of 19 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'The Assembly'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

Alistair planing the ends of ribs above the gunwales.

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_assembly_18": $id = "5"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
The Assembly
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_assembly_19": $id = "5"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_assembly_19&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Assembly

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 19 of 19 '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'The Assembly'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The planking finished, the canoe is removed from the bench and taken to Pien\'s house in Sheshatshiu where it will be covered with canvas and painted.

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_assembly_19": $id = "5"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
The Assembly
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_finishing_01": $id = "6"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_finishing_01&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Finishing

'; echo '
'; echo ' Step 1 of 8 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'Canvas'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

New canvas being laid out on the hull of the canoe.

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_finishing_01": $id = "6"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
Canvas
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_finishing_02": $id = "6"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_finishing_02&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Finishing

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 2 of 8 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'Wash canoe'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The canvas is now washed with hot, soapy water to prepare it for painting.

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_finishing_02": $id = "6"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
Wash canoe
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_finishing_03": $id = "6"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_finishing_03&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Finishing

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 3 of 8 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'Paint canoe'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

Alistair and Melvin painting the canoe. In the days before settlement, the Innu painted their canoes green or white with paint purchased from the Hudson\'s Bay Company in North West River.

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_finishing_03": $id = "6"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
Paint canoe
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_finishing_04": $id = "6"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_finishing_04&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Finishing

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 4 of 8 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'Stem plate'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

Pien applies a metal stem plate to the bow and stern of the canoe. This metal strapping was found in Goose Bay lying about some old pallets.

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_finishing_04": $id = "6"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
Stem plate
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_finishing_05": $id = "6"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_finishing_05&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Finishing

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 5 of 8 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'Stem plate'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

Pien nailing a stem plate to the canoe.

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_finishing_05": $id = "6"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
Stem plate
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_finishing_06": $id = "6"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_finishing_06&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Finishing

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 6 of 8 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'Outwhale'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

Pien, Melvin, and Alistair attaching the ashpitakaikan (outwale) to the canoe.

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_finishing_06": $id = "6"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
Outwhale
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_finishing_07": $id = "6"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_finishing_07&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Finishing

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 7 of 8 '; echo ' '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'Gunwhale cap'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

Close up of the nearly completed canoe showing the ashpitakaikan (gunwale cap).

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_finishing_07": $id = "6"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
Gunwhale cap
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "process_finishing_08": $id = "6"; $lien = "info_e.php?info=III-B-223&func=zoom_finishing_08&page=1202"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The Finishing

'; echo '
'; echo ' '; echo ' Step 8 of 8 '; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo 'Finished canoe'; echo " \"Zoom\""; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '
'; echo '

The completed canoe being readied for a temporary exhibit at the Labrador Interpretation Centre in North West River.

'; echo '
'; break; case "zoom_finishing_08": $id = "6"; echo menuhaut_process($id); echo '
Finished canoe
'; echo '
 Back 
'; break; case "galerie": require ("includes/openconn.php"); echo '

Gallery

'; $sql = "SELECT id FROM innu_image_site WHERE lien = '$page_courrante' "; $result = mysql_query($sql); //echo "resultats".mysql_numrows($result); echo "
"; $compteur = 1; while($row = mysql_fetch_array($result)){ echo sous_galerie($row["id"],$page_courrante,mysql_numrows($result)); if (($compteur % 3) == 0) { echo "
"; } $compteur ++; } break; case "image": $tableau = searchArtefact($info); echo '

'.ucfirst($tableau["name"]).'

'; echo '
'; echo resizeImage($tableau["image_full"],ucfirst(htmlentities($tableau["name"])),450); break; case "image_site": $arr=search_image_site($info); echo '

Image

'; echo '
'; echo resizeImage($arr['image_full_site'],$arr['texte'],450)."

".$arr['texte']."

";; if ($arr['image_full_site'] == "images/full/canoediagram.jpg") { echo '

Click on the active links in the list of words below to hear the pronunciation of the word in Innu-aimun. Not all of the words have sound clips associated with them.

'; echo 'A - takuaikan
'; echo 'B, C - mekuamitaku
'; echo 'D - nishtamitaku

'; echo '1 - kapiten
'; print_html_audio_canot("2 - tetaut-apikan","tetaut-apikan.wav"); print_html_audio_canot("3 - minikukanashku","minikukanashku.wav"); echo '4 - tshinatinau
'; print_html_audio_canot("5 - utshanikush / ushkatitshekan","ushkatitshekan.wav"); print_html_audio_canot("6 - apikaniss","apikaniss.wav"); print_html_audio_canot("7 - apinan-apikan","apinan-apikan.wav"); print_html_audio_canot("8 - anashkan","anashkan.wav"); print_html_audio_canot("9 - uatshinau","uatshinau.wav"); echo '10 - ashpitakaikan
'; echo '11 - mishkutui
'; echo '12 - kanishtamitakutshet
'; echo '13 - katakuashtunanit
'; echo '      katshishtashkuatet
'; echo '      shipaitakan - ush
'; } echo '

'; if(!isset($page)){$page=$_GET['page'];} echo '

Back

'; break; } ?>